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Distributions include the Linux kernel and supporting system software and librariesmany of which are provided by the GNU Project. Popular Linux distributions [18] [19] [20] include DebianFedora Linux смотрите подробнее, and Ubuntuwhich in itself has many different distributions and modifications, including Lubuntu and Xubuntu.

Distributions intended for servers may omit graphics altogether, or include a solution stack such as LAMP. Because Linux is freely redistributable, anyone may create a distribution for any purpose. Linux was originally developed for personal computers based on the Intel x86 architecture, but has since been ported to more platforms than any other operating system.

Linux also runs on embedded systemsi. Linux is one of the most prominent examples of free and open-source software collaboration. The source code may be used, modified and distributed commercially or non-commercially by anyone under the terms of its respective licenses, such as the GNU General Public License GPL.

The Linux kernel, for example, is licensed under the GPLv2, with a special exception for system callsas without the system call exception any program calling on the kernel would be considered a derivative and therefore the GPL would have to apply to that program. The availability of a high-level language implementation of Unix made its porting to different computer platforms easier. As a result, Unix grew quickly and became widely adopted by academic institutions and businesses.

Onyx Systems began selling early microcomputer-based Unix workstations in Later, Sun Microsystemsfounded as a spin-off of a student project at Stanford Universityalso began selling Unix-based desktop workstations in While Sun workstations didn’t utilize commodity PC hardware like Linux was later developed for, it represented the first successful commercial attempt at distributing a primarily single-user microcomputer that ran a Unix operating system.

With Unix increasingly “locked in” as a proprietary product, the GNU Projectstarted in by Richard Stallmanhad the goal of creating a “complete Unix-compatible software system” composed entirely of free software.

Work began in By the early s, many of the programs required in an operating system such as libraries, compilerstext editorsa command-line shelland a windowing system were completed, although low-level elements such as device drivers microsoft powerpoint 2016 tutorial for beginners pdf free, daemonsand the kernelcalled GNU Hurdwere stalled and incomplete. Tanenbauma computer science professor, and released in as a minimal Unix-like operating system targeted at students and others who wanted to learn operating system principles.

Although the complete source code of MINIX was freely available, the licensing terms prevented it from being free software until the licensing changed in April Linus Torvalds has stated on separate occasions that if the GNU kernel or BSD had been available at the timehe probably would not have created Linux.

While attending the University of Helsinki in fall ofTorvalds enrolled in a Unix course.

It was with this course that Torvalds first became exposed to Unix. Inhe became curious about operating systems. Later, Linux matured and further Linux kernel development took place on Linux systems. Linus Torvalds had wanted to call his подробнее на этой странице ” Freax “, a portmanteau of “free”, “freak”, and “x” as an allusion to Unix.

During the start of his work on the system, some of the project’s makefiles included the name “Freax” for about half a year. Initially, Torvalds considered the name “Linux” but dismissed it as too egotistical. To facilitate development, the files were uploaded to the FTP server ftp. Ari Lemmke, Torvalds’ coworker at the Helsinki University of Technology HUT who was one of the volunteer administrators for the FTP server at the time, did not think that “Freax” was a good name, so he named the project “Linux” on the server without consulting Torvalds.

Adoption of Linux in production environments, rather than being used only by hobbyists, started to take off first in the mids in the supercomputing community, where organizations such as NASA started to replace their increasingly expensive machines with clusters of inexpensive commodity computers running Linux.

Commercial use began when Dell and IBMfollowed by Hewlett-Packardstarted offering Linux support to escape Microsoft ‘s monopoly in the desktop operating system market. Today, Linux systems are used throughout computing, from embedded systems to virtually all supercomputers[31] [61] and have a place in server installations such as the popular LAMP application stack.

Use of Linux distributions in home and enterprise desktops has been growing. Linux’s greatest success in the consumer market is microsoft powerpoint 2016 tutorial for beginners pdf free the mobile device market, with Android being the dominant operating system on smartphones and very popular on tablets and, more recently, on wearables.

Linux gaming is also on the rise with Valve showing its support for Linux and rolling out SteamOSits own gaming-oriented Linux distribution. Linux distributions have also gained popularity with various local and national governments, such as the federal government of Brazil.

Greg Kroah-Hartman is the lead maintainer for the Linux kernel and guides its development. These third-party components comprise a vast body of work and may include both kernel modules and user applications and libraries. Linux vendors and communities combine and distribute the kernel, GNU components, and non-GNU components, with additional package management software in the form of Linux distributions.

Many open source developers agree that the Linux страница was not designed but rather evolved through natural selection. Torvalds considers that although the design of Unix served as a scaffolding, “Linux grew with a lot of mutations — and because the mutations were less than random, they were faster and more directed than alpha-particles in DNA.

Raymond considers Linux’s revolutionary aspects to be social, not technical: before Linux, complex software was designed carefully by small groups, but “Linux evolved in a completely different way. From nearly the beginning, it was rather casually hacked on by huge numbers of volunteers coordinating only through the Internet. Quality was maintained not by rigid standards or autocracy but by the naively simple strategy of releasing every week and getting feedback from hundreds of users within days, creating a sort of rapid Darwinian selection on the mutations introduced by developers.

Such a system uses a monolithic kernelthe Linux kernelwhich handles process control, networking, access to the peripheralsand file systems. Device drivers are either integrated directly with the kernel, or added as modules that are loaded while the system is running. The GNU userland is a key part of most systems based on the Linux kernel, with Android being the notable exception.

The Project’s implementation of the C library works as a wrapper for the system calls of the Microsoft powerpoint 2016 tutorial for beginners pdf free kernel necessary to the kernel-userspace interface, the toolchain is a broad collection of programming tools vital to Linux development including the compilers used to build the Linux kernel itselfand the coreutils implement many basic Unix tools.

The project also develops Basha popular CLI shell. Many other open-source software projects contribute to Linux systems. Installed components of a Linux system include the following: [78] [80]. The user interfacealso known as the shellis either a command-line interface CLIa graphical user interface GUIor controls attached to the associated hardware, which is common for embedded systems. For desktop systems, the default user interface is usually graphical, although the CLI is commonly available through terminal emulator windows or microsoft powerpoint 2016 tutorial for beginners pdf free a separate virtual console.

CLI shells are text-based user interfaces, which use text microsoft powerpoint 2016 tutorial for beginners pdf free both microsoft powerpoint 2016 tutorial for beginners pdf free and output. Most low-level Linux components, including various parts of the userlanduse the CLI exclusively. The CLI is particularly suited for automation of repetitive or delayed tasks and provides very simple inter-process communication.

Most popular user interfaces are based on the X Window Systemoften simply called “X”. It provides network transparency and permits a graphical application running on microsoft powerpoint 2016 tutorial for beginners pdf free system to be displayed on another where a user may interact with the application; however, certain microsoft powerpoint 2016 tutorial for beginners pdf free of the X Window System are not capable of working over the network.

Org Serverbeing the most popular. Server distributions might provide a command-line interface for developers and administrators, but provide a custom interface towards end-users, designed for the use-case of the system.

This custom interface is accessed through a client that resides on another system, not necessarily Linux based. Several types of window managers exist for X11, including tilingdynamicstacking and compositing. Window managers provide means to control the placement and appearance logic pro x input monitoring only for focused track free download individual application windows, and interact with the X Window System. Simpler X window managers such as dwmratpoisonmicrosoft powerpoint 2016 tutorial for beginners pdf freeor herbstluftwm provide a minimalist functionality, while more elaborate window managers such as FVWMEnlightenment or Window Maker provide more features such as a built-in taskbar and themesbut are still lightweight when compared нажмите чтобы увидеть больше desktop environments.

Microsoft powerpoint 2016 tutorial for beginners pdf free is a display server protocol intended as a replacement for the X11 protocol; as of [update]it has not received wider adoption. Unlike X11, Wayland продолжить not need an external window manager and compositing manager.

Therefore, a Wayland compositor takes the role of the display server, window manager and compositing manager. Enlightenment has already been successfully ported since version Due to the complexity and diversity of different devices, and due to the large number of formats and standards handled by those APIs, this infrastructure needs to evolve to better fit other devices.

Also, a good userspace device library is the key of the если upgrade microsoft office 2008 free download мысль for having userspace applications to be able to work with all formats supported by those devices. The primary difference between Linux and many other popular contemporary operating systems is that the Linux kernel and other components are free and open-source software. Linux is not the only such operating system, although it is by far the most widely used.

Linux-based distributions are intended by developers for interoperability with other operating systems and established computing standards. Free software projects, although developed through collaborationare often produced independently посетить страницу источник each other.

The fact that the software licenses explicitly permit redistribution, however, provides a basis for larger-scale projects that collect the software produced by stand-alone projects and make it available all at once in the form of a Linux distribution. Many Linux distributions manage a remote collection of system software and application software packages available for download and installation through a network connection. This allows users to adapt the operating system to their specific needs.

Distributions are maintained by individuals, loose-knit teams, volunteer organizations, and commercial entities. A distribution is responsible for the default configuration of the installed Linux kernel, general system security, and more generally integration of the different software packages into a coherent whole.

Distributions typically use a package manager such as aptyumzypperpacman or portage to install, remove, and update all of a system’s software from one central location.

A distribution is microsoft powerpoint 2016 tutorial for beginners pdf free driven by its developer and user communities. Some vendors develop and fund their distributions on a volunteer basis, Debian being a well-known example. In many cities and regions, local associations known as Linux User Groups LUGs seek to promote their preferred distribution and by extension free software.

They microsoft powerpoint 2016 tutorial for beginners pdf free meetings and provide free demonstrations, training, technical support, and operating system installation to new users. Many Internet communities also provide support to Linux users and developers. Online forums are another means for support, with notable перейти на страницу being LinuxQuestions.

Linux distributions host mailing lists ; commonly there will be a specific topic such as usage or development for a given list.

There are several technology websites with a Linux focus. Print magazines on Linux often bundle cover disks that carry software or even complete Linux distributions. Больше на странице Linux distributions are generally available without charge, several large corporations sell, support, and contribute to the development of the components of the system and of free software. The free software licenseson which the various software packages of a distribution built on the Linux kernel are based, explicitly accommodate and encourage commercialization; the relationship between a Linux distribution as a whole and individual vendors may be seen as symbiotic.

One common business model of commercial suppliers is charging for support, for business users. A number of companies also offer a specialized business version of their distribution, which adds proprietary support packages and tools to administer higher numbers of installations or to simplify administrative tasks.

Another business model is to give away the software to sell hardware. As computer hardware standardized throughout the s, it became more difficult for hardware manufacturers to profit from this tactic, as the OS would run on any manufacturer’s computer that shared the same architecture.

Most programming languages support Microsoft powerpoint 2016 tutorial for beginners pdf free either directly or through third-party community based ports.

First released inthe LLVM project provides an alternative cross-platform open-source compiler for many languages.

A common feature of Unix-like systems, Linux includes traditional specific-purpose programming languages targeted at scriptingtext processing and system configuration and management in general.

Linux distributions support shell scriptsawksed and make.


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After we finish writing something in Microsoft Word, there would be a troubling problem: how to ensure that others will not change the contents and formats of this Word document? You can choose to transfer the file safely or even set a password for this file. In fact, there is the simplest way for you to do that. If you know how to turn a Word document into a PDF, the problem will be solved effortlessly.

Keep reading to know the details. Many people may want to know the answer to the question “how to make Word document into PDF on Windows? It supports multiple frequently-used document or image formats, including. Besides that, this converter is very user-friendly, and even beginners can use it without any hassle.

Besides all the features above, more functions are worth exploring. If you want to find the solutions to your PDF editing or converting problems, this is a suitable tool. Click on the button below to Download it For Free. Step 1. You can also drag and drop the files into the program. Step 2. When the file is imported, choose a save path for the converted file and click “Convert” to continue.

Step 3. Wait for a while, and you can view the converted PDF file. Or, you can save it to your computer by clicking the “Save All Converted Files” button. Obtaining a PDF file in Word is not a difficult task since it offers you a built-in PDF conversion tool, and there is no need to download a third-party program to convert Word to a high-resolution PDF.

As this converting tool is straightforward to use, everyone can create a PDF file from an Office Word document in only a few clicks. One of the disadvantages of Word is that it can not edit the converted PDF file, and it will become troublesome if there is something wrong with the document.

So, you start the conversion, ensure that the document content is complete and the page layout is appropriate. Open the Word document you want to convert, and click the “File” tab in the upper left corner of your screen. Choose the “Export” option on the left side of the screen. Step 4. Then, click the “Publish” button to start the converting process. But the interfaces of those two versions are not the same.

For example, you cannot find some options under the “File” tab in Word , but they are available in Word Open an existing Word file, and click the “File” option in the toolbar. Find the “Share” option and choose it. Then, there will be many buttons. In the prompt, you need to choose a location on your PC to store the PDF file and don’t forget to set its file name.

With its help, you can effortlessly create a PDF file from a Word document without installing Acrobat. The following are the detailed steps to do that. If you want to find the answer to the question “how to turn Word doc into PDF,” don’t miss this tutorial.

Open the word file you want to convert, and click the Office button at the top left. Before the conversion, you can change the settings in “Options. There is no PDF converter in this version of Microsoft Word, so that you need to download and install a plugin manually. Without this kind of third-party software, you cannot operate the steps below. Open a “. In the dropdown list of the “File” option, you can choose “Print.

Change the printer into “Adobe PDF” or another one, and the name is based on the plug-in you are using. On the next screen, you can choose an appropriate location for your PDF file. It’s also possible to set a file name for it. Finally, you only need to click on the “Save” button to start conversion. How do you get the conversion done?

There are detailed steps that walk you through converting Word to PDF without losing formatting. Preview, the vendor-supplied application offered by Apple, is designed for viewing, editing, and converting files ranging from images to PDFs and other documents.

The tests proved that Preview supports opening a Word document and converting it into PDF format without destroying its layout and formatting. After the conversion, Preview also allows you to edit the converted PDF with ease. For instance, if your PDF file contains sensitive information, you can encrypt the file by adding a password to it. Nevertheless, Preview also comes with some flaws, and it doesn’t support converting files in batches. That means you have to open the Word document one by one and export them in PDF format, which will slow down its converting speed.

For people who only need to process several Word documents, this application is competent. Follow this tutorial below to save Word document as PDF. A window will pop up, and you need to set the file name. Don’t forget to change the file extension from “.

If you want to secure the PDF, click on the “Show Details” button in this window, tick the box before the “Encrypt” option, and set your password. Finally, click on the “Save” button to start the conversion. Like on Windows, there is also a version of Microsoft Offer for Mac. If you have installed this application on your Mac, it will be a great choice to save Word documents as PDF directly with it as Microsoft Word will keep the formatting of your document.

Besides saving the Word file as a PDF, the file-sharing function is also available for conversion. Then, select “PDF” from the dropdown menu of “Format.

The methods above all rely on desktop programs, including vendor-supplied software, third-party software, and Microsoft Word itself. However, due to various reasons, such as the lack of computer storage space, some people may be unable to use offline methods, and they usually turn to online tools to do that conversion. The available converting tools are clearly categorized according to the source formats and output formats so that you can find the converter you need effortlessly.

This online Word to PDF converter supports converting both. And you only need to upload the Word file to its server, wait for a few seconds, and download the converted PDF to your PC. All your files are secure as this online tool will delete the documents from its server after a while. Follow this tutorial to use this online converter now. Click on the “Choose File” button to upload your Word document, or you can drag and drop to upload the Word. Moreover, it’s also an online PDF editor that provides you with both elementary and advanced functions to edit your PDFs.

It’s easy to crop, rotate, split, compress, and merge the PDFs with this tool. And you don’t need to worry about privacy issues since this tool will delete what you have uploaded to its server after 2 hours.

Click on the “Upload Word files” button and select the Word document from your device. The conversion will begin automatically. Click on the “Download” button to save the converted PDF to your device a few seconds later. This online converting tool is more professional as it even supports the conversion between some uncommon formats.

Of course, Word documents can be easily converted into PDF format using it. It’s worth noting that this online tool can reduce the PDF file size and make it suitable for sending by email or uploading to other platforms.

Now, follow this tutorial to change Word to PDF. You can also drag and drop to add the PDF file. When the file is added to the pending list, click on the “Convert” button behind it to start the conversion. Then, there will be a “Download” icon that you can use to save the converted PD F to your device. Although you can easily save Doc as PDF in only a few clicks with Microsoft Word, you may still have some conversion process problems. For instance, you need to download plugins when using some previous versions of Microsoft Word, but sometimes you may have no idea about downloading and installing them on your PC.

Besides that, Microsoft only provides you with the most basic functions in conversion. For people who need some advanced features, they would better find some specialized Word to PDF converter.

This part will introduce two optional Doc to PDF converter offline software, and you can find a suitable one. This is one of the most famous offline Word to PDF converter programs all around the world. This all-in-one software enables you to handle the Doc files and gives you the ability to convert Excel and PowerPoint files with simple steps. On the other hand, if you need to convert a PDF file into a Word document, it can also help. In addition to that, you can merge several files into a whole PDF.

With this feature, you don’t have to waste time arranging files and adjusting the page layout, and it will keep the former layout for you. This is another full-featured offline Word to PDF converter which is featured by user-friendly operations. It offers you a simple interface and a significant number of tutorials.

Besides that, there is also an active user community in which you can ask for help. Its batch conversion features can save a lot of time and energy for you, and you can even use it to check the spelling mistakes in your articles. Those methods can solve your problems in converting Word to PDF, and each of them has its pros and cons.

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